The Frequent questions that are arising in the mind of a GATE aspirant is

What are the important subjects???

Which subject should I focus the most???

WELL GUYS!!!! To clear your doubts, here are some inputs from our faculties which will help students for the successful GATE preparation.

**Compiler Design**

Compiler design covers basic translation mechanism and error detection & recovery. It includes lexical, syntax, and semantic analysis as front end, and code generation and optimization as back-end. Compiler construction is an area of computer science that deals with the theory and practice of developing programming languages and their associated compilers.

If we talk from **GATE **point of view, generally weightage in GATE is **4 marks**.

Since **GATE** exam is being conducted online in multiple sessions so we have to go through the entire syllabus properly but there are some areas which need more attention as compared to other areas.

**Important topics:-**

- Parsing
- Syntax Directed Translation
- Intermediate code generation

**Important formulas/concepts:-**

- Parsing: Construction of Parsing tables of LL(1), SLR(1), LALR(1), CLR(1).
- Syntax Directed Translation: Syntax trees and translation schemes
- Intermediate code generation: Different methods of representing intermediate code.

**Computer Networks**

Computer Networks is one of the important subjects which deals with how data communication is happening among systems and what are the protocols they are using for communication. Among all subjects, it is very interesting and its application is known to everybody. In real world, all applications such as Railways, Airlines, Banks, e.t.c are performing their business globally by sharing data across the world. Students will find it interesting and challenging in understanding the concepts like Bandwidth, Utilization, and e.t.c.

If we talk from **GATE **point of view, generally 8 to 9 marks questions are asked.

Since **GATE** exam is being conducted online in multiple sessions so we have to go through the entire syllabus properly but there are some areas which need more attention as compared to other areas.

**Important topics:-**

- IPV4 Addressing
- IPV4 Protocol
- Routing Algorithms
- Sliding Window Protocols
- TCP Connection Management

**Important formulas/concepts:-**

- No of Subnets and No of Hosts/Subnet for Classful and Classless IP Addressing.
- How and When Router Fragments an incoming IPV4 datagram.
- Efficiency in Time, Efficiency in bits, Max Throughput, and Minimum no of bits required for Frame No in Stop-and-Wait, Go-Back-N, and Selective Repeat Sliding Window Protocols.
- TCP Connection Establishment, TCP Connection Termination, and in Data Transfer normal case, lost segment and fast retransmission.

**Data Structures and Algorithms**

Data Structures and Algorithms is an excellent subject with different types of problems and programming. We will see different types of algorithms for different types of problems and analyze them to conclude which is the best algorithm. This is a subject where even a normal student can understand the algorithms but analysis of these algorithms is the challenging part of the subject.

If we talk from **GATE **point of view, generally 15 to 17 marks questions are asked.

Since **GATE** exam is being conducted online in multiple sessions so we have to go through the entire syllabus properly but there are some areas which need more attention as compared to other areas.

**Important topics:- **

- Arrays
- Asymptotic Notations
- Sorting, Searching
- Graphs
- Greedy & Dynamic Programming

**Important formulas/concepts:-**

- Row major, Column major storage of Arrays and their formulae, Pointers storage and concept of double pointers.
- Asymptotic functions and their comparison. Master’s Theorem.
- Sorting and Searching – Different sorting techniques and number of comparisons needed in all. Time complexity analysis.
- Graphs – Graph traversals and applications of BFS and DFS with time complexity.
- Greedy and Dynamic Programming – Problems solved by using Greedy and Dynamic programming with their time complexities

**Database Management System**

Database Management System is an important subject that deals with the database of any organization. We are interacting with database in our day to day life in Bank, ATM, hospitals, Super Markets etc. This is the subject that deals with day to day transactions done in the database, performance aspect of the database, analysis and design of the database. This is a subject which is considered to be the ‘must required’ for GATE as well as campus placements.

If we talk from **GATE **point of view, generally 7 to 8 marks questions are asked.

**GATE** exam is being conducted online in multiple sessions so we have to go through the entire syllabus properly but there are some areas which need more attention as compared to other areas.

**Important topics:- **

- SQL
- Normalization
- Concurrency Control

**Important formulas/concepts:-**

- SQL: single, multi row functions, Joins, Sub queries and Correlated queries. Analyzing each query and finding the rows in the result.
- Normalization: The concepts of FD, 2NF, 3NF, BCNF. Finding the keys and Identifying the given table is in which normal form.
- Concurrency control: Concept of Serializability, Finding the given schedule is conflict serializable or view serializable.

**Discrete Mathematics and Graph Theory**

Discrete mathematics is the foundation for the formal approaches. It discusses languages used in mathematical reasoning, basic concepts, and their properties and relationships among them. It is also concerned with techniques to solve certain types of problems such as how to count or enumerate quantities. Graph theory is the study of graphs, which are mathematical structures used to model pair-wise relations between objects. This field of mathematics can be applied for many issues, ranging from operational research and chemistry to genetics and linguistics, and from electrical engineering and geography to sociology and architecture.

If we talk from **GATE **point of view, weightage of this subject is 6 to 7 marks.

**GATE** exam is being conducted online in multiple sessions so we have to go through the entire syllabus properly but there are some areas which need more attention as compared to other areas.

**Important topics:- **

- Propositional logic, Predicate Logic, Relations
- Graph Theory

**Important formulas/concepts:-**

- Propositional, Predicate Logic: Logical Equivalence, Predicates & Quantifiers, Truth tables
- Relations: Equivalence relations, Partial order sets, Hasse diagrams, Groups.
- Graph Theory: Graph Traversals, Minimum spanning trees, Isomorphism, Edge and Vertex covering, Coloring problems.

**Operating System**

Operating System is an excellent subject which gives clear idea of how operating system interacting with hardware to execute processes. Students will have good challenge in comparing two popular operating systems Windows and UNIX. This subject explains the responsibilities of operating system like File Management, Memory Management, Process Management, and e.t.c.

If we talk from **GATE **point of view, generally 7 to 8 marks questions are asked.

**GATE** exam is being conducted online in multiple sessions so we have to go through the entire syllabus properly but there are some areas which need more attention as compared to other areas.

**Important topics:- **

- CPU Scheduling Algorithms
- Deadlocks
- Semaphores
- Virtual Memory
- Hard Disk Management

**Important formulas/concepts:-**

- How to compute Average Waiting Time, Average Throughput, Average Response Time, Average Turn Around Time, and CPU Utilization for CPU Scheduling Algorithms.
- Deadlock Prevention, Deadlock Avoidance, and Deadlock Detection techniques.
- Concept of Page Table, Size of Page Table, and Need for Multi-Level Paging.
- How Processes will co-operate using Semaphores in accessing their Critical Regions.
- Calculation of Seek Time, Rotational Latency, and Transfer Rate of Hard Disk.

**Theory of Computation**

Theory of computation is the branch that deals with how efficiently problems can be solved on a model of computation, using an algorithm. The classical theory of computation traditionally deals with processing an input string of symbols into an output string of symbols. This subject deals with the study of fundamental capabilities and limitations of computers.

If we talk from **GATE **point of view, generally 7 to 8 mark questions are asked.

**GATE** exam is being conducted online in multiple sessions so we have to go through the entire syllabus properly but there are some areas which need more attention as compared to other areas.

**Important topics:- **

- Finite Automata
- Push Down Automata
- Turing Machine

**Important formulas/concepts:-**

- Finite Automata: Draw DFA that accepts given language, Conversion from NFA to minimal DFA, Regular expressions and corresponding DFA.
- Push Down Automata: Identifying a given language is Regular or CFL, Closure properties of CFL.
- Turing Machine: Whether given language is accepted by given Turing machine, Closure properties of CSL, Recursive and Recursively enumerable languages, Undecidable problems.

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